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迷你雪纳瑞 FCI国际纯种犬标准

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导读 : 注:该标准中文版翻译自FCI国际纯种犬标准英文版,已发布于CKU官网-犬种百科18.04.2007 /ENFCI-国际纯种犬标准第 183 号MINIATURE SCHNAUZER(Zwergschn hhhh...

注:该标准中文版翻译自FCI国际纯种犬标准英文版,已发布于CKU官网-犬种百科

本图片不一定代表该犬种的理想例子

ORIGIN:Germany.

起源:德国

Date of acceptance on a definitive basis by the FCI: 7/13/1955

FCI正式认可日期:1955年7月13日

DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE OFFICIAL VALID STANDARD:06.03.2007.

正式生效标准发布日期:2007年3月6日

UTILIZATION:House and Companion Dog

用途:家庭犬和伴侣犬。

FCI-CLASSIFICATION:

Group 2 Pinscher and Schnauzer-Molossoid breeds - SwissMountain and Cattle Dogs.

Section 1 Pinscher and Schnauzer type.

Without working trial.

FCI分组

第2组:宾莎犬和雪纳瑞、獒犬、瑞士山地犬和瑞士牧牛犬及其它犬种;

第1 类 宾莎犬和雪纳瑞犬

无需工作犬测试。

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:

Around the turn of the century a dwarf Schnauzer from the Frankfurt/Main area went on his way, then still described as a rough haired Zwergpinscher (Miniature Pinscher). Due to the different shapes, sizes and types and the muddle of harsh, soft and silky coat textures, it was no easy task to evolve a small dog with the appearance and the characteristic qualities of his bigger brother, the Schnauzer.

历史梗概:

大约在19、20 世纪交接之际,在法兰克福地区出现的一种矮小雪纳瑞犬一直在不断发展,那时候他仍被描述为一种粗毛迷你宾莎犬。由于形状、大小和类型不同,并且其被毛兼具粗糙、柔软、丝滑的特质,因此能使这种小型犬逐渐具备与其较大型的兄弟-标准雪纳瑞一样的外表和特质并不容易。

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

Small, strong, stocky rather than slim, rough coated, elegant. A reduced image of the Schnauzer without the drawback of a dwarfed appearance.

整体外貌:

体形小,有力,健壮而不瘦小,被毛粗糙,举止优雅。标准雪纳瑞的缩小版,但没有侏儒之感。

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS:

Square build in which the height at the withers is nearly equal to the body length.

The length of the head (measured from the tip of the nose to the occiput) corresponds to half the length of the topline (measured from the withers to the set on of the tail).

重要比例

方形,肩高几乎与身长相等

头长(从鼻尖到枕骨的长度)是背线长度(从肩胛骨到尾根部的长度)的一半。

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT:

His nature is similar to that of the Schnauzer and is determined by the temperament and the behaviour of a small dog. Intelligence, fearlessness, endurance and alertness make the Miniature Schnauzer an agreeable house dog as well as a watch and companion dog which can be kept even in a small apartment without problems.

行为/秉性

其本性与标准雪纳瑞相似,并由小型犬的行为性情决定。聪明,无畏,耐力强,警惕性高,这些特质使迷你型雪纳瑞成为一种令人愉快的家庭犬,看护犬和伴侣犬,即使将其饲养在小公寓中也没有问题。

HEAD:头部

CRANIAL REGION:颅部区域

Skull:Strong, long without markedly protruding occiput. The head should be in keeping with the dog’s force. The forehead is flat, without wrinkles and parallel to the bridge of nose.

头骨:强壮,长,没有明显突出的后枕骨。头部应与犬的力量相配。前额平坦,没有褶皱,与鼻梁平行。

Stop:Appears well defined due to the brows

额段:由于额头的原因,额段浅且平。

FACIAL REGION:面部区域

Nose:Well developed nose leather, always black.

鼻:鼻子的皮肤发育良好,总是为黑色。

Muzzle:Ending in a blunt wedge. Bridge of nose straight.

口吻:末端呈钝楔形,鼻梁直。

Lips:Black, smooth and tight-fitting to the jaws. Corners of lips closed.

唇:黑色,平滑,并紧连上下颌,嘴角闭合。

Jaws/Teeth:Strong upper and lower jaw. The complete scissor bite (42 pure white teeth according to the dentition formula), is strongly developed and firmly closing. The chewing muscles are strongly developed but the cheeks must not interfere with the rectangular shape of the head (with the beard).

颌/齿:上下颌强健,完全剪状咬合(按齿系惯例有42 颗纯白牙齿),发育良好,紧闭。咀嚼肌发达,但面颊不能改变头部(带胡须)的形状-矩形。

Eyes:Medium sized, oval, facing forward, dark with lively expression. Eyelids close fitting.

眼睛:中等大小,椭圆,朝前,深色,表情生动。眼睑紧密贴合。

Ears:Drop ears, set high, V-shaped with inner edges lying close to the cheeks, evenly carried , turned forward towards temples. Folds parallel, should not be above the top of the skull.

耳朵:垂耳,位置高,呈V 字形,耳朵内侧紧贴面颊,对称,向前折向太阳穴。平行折叠,不应高于头骨顶端。

NECK:

The strong, muscular neck is nobly arched, blending smoothly into the withers. Strongly set on, slim, nobly curved, corresponding to the dog’s force. Throat skin tight-fitting without folds.

颈部:结实、肌肉发达,呈优美的弧线,与肩胛骨连接平滑顺畅。强壮,苗条,弧线优美,与其力量协调。喉部皮肤干燥无褶皱。

BODY:躯干

Topline: Slightly sloping from withers towards rear.

背线:从肩胛骨向后稍微倾斜。

Withers: Forming the highest point in topline.

肩胛骨:在背线上形成最高点。

Back:Strong, short and taut.

背:强壮,短而不松弛。

Loin:Short, strong and deep. The distance from the last rib to the hip is short to make the dog appear compact.

腰:强壮,短而深。最后一根肋骨到臀部的距离较短,使身体看起来较紧凑。

Croup: Slightly rounded and imperceptibly blending into tail set on.

臀:略圆,与尾根部融为一体。

Chest:Moderately broad, oval in diameter, reaching to the elbows.The fore chest is distinctly marked by the point of the sternum.

胸:宽度适中,直径椭圆,延伸至肘部。

前胸的胸骨尖端非常明显。

Underline and belly: Flanks not too tucked up, forming a well curved line with the underside of the ribcage.

下线/腹部:侧腹略向上收,与胸腔的下侧形成优美的曲线。

TAIL:Natural; a sabre or sickle carriage is sought after.

:自然;马刀或镰刀状姿态较好。

LIMBS:四肢

FOREQUARTERS:前躯

General appearance:

Seen from the front, the front legs are strong, straight and not close together. Seen from the side, the forearms are straight.

前肢整体:从前面看,前腿强壮,笔直,两腿之间有距离。从侧面看,前臂笔直。

Shoulders:The shoulder blade lies close against the rib cage and is well muscled on both sides of the shoulder bone, protruding over the points of the thoracic vertebrae. As sloping as possible and well laid back, forming an angle of appr. 50° to the horizontal.

肩:肩胛紧靠胸腔,肩胛骨两侧的肌肉发达,突出超过胸椎骨前端。尽量向后倾斜,和水平线形成约50°的夹角。

Upper arm: Lying close to the body, strong and well-muscled, forming an angle of 95° to 105° to the shoulder blade.

上臂:紧连身体,强壮、肌肉发达,与肩胛成95°~ 105°的夹角。

Elbows: Close fitting, turning neither in nor out.

肘:紧贴身体,既不内弯也不外翻。

Forearm: Viewed from all sides, completely straight, strongly developed and well-muscled.

前臂:从各个面看都是完全笔直的,强壮且肌肉发达。

Carpal joint: Strong, firm, barely standing out against the structure of the forearm.

腕骨关节:强壮,结实,与前臂相连。

Pastern: Seen from the front, vertical. Seen from the side slightly sloping towards the ground, strong and slightly springy.

系骨:从前面看垂直。从侧面看,略微朝地面倾斜,强壮且稍有弹性。

Forefeet: Short and round. Toes well-knit and arched (cat foot) with short dark nails and resistant pads.

前足:短而圆。足趾接合紧密并拱起(猫足),趾甲短且颜色深,有抗磨的足垫。

LIMBS:四肢

HINDQUARTERS: 后躯

General appearance:Standing obliquely when seen from the side, standing parallel but not close together when seen from the rear.

整体外观:从侧面看倾斜站立,从后面看站立时两腿平行但不紧靠在一起。

Upper thigh: Moderately long, broad and strongly muscled.

大腿:长度适中,宽且肌肉发达。

Stifle: Turning neither in nor out.

膝关节:既不内翻、也不外翻。

Lower thigh: Long, strong and sinewy, running into a strong hock.

小腿:长而强壮、有力,和强壮的跖部相连。

Hock: Very well angulated, strong, firm, turning neither in nor out.

跖部:角度良好,强壮,结实,既不内翻、也不外翻。

Metatarsus: Short, vertical to the ground.

跖骨:短,与地面垂直。

Hind feet: Toes short, arched and well-knit. Nails short and black.

后足:足趾短,圆拱,紧凑。趾甲短,为黑色。

GAIT/MOVEMENT:

Flexible, elegant, agile, free and ground covering. The forelegs swinging as far forward as possible, the hind legs, ground covering and springy, provide the necessary drive. The front leg of one side and the hind leg of the other side move forward at the same time. The back, the ligaments and the joints are firm.

步态/动态

灵活,优雅,轻快,自如,步幅大。前腿应尽可能向前摆动,后腿登地有弹性,提供所需的驱动力。一侧的前腿和另一侧的后腿同时向前迈动。背部、韧带和关节结实稳固。

SKIN: Tight fitting over the whole body.

皮肤:紧覆于整个身体上。

COAT:被毛

Hair:The coat should be wiry, harsh and dense. It consists of a dense undercoat and a not too short top coat, lying close to the body. The top coat is rough and sufficiently long to allow the checking of its texture; it is neither bristly nor wavy. The hair on the limbs tends to be less harsh. Coat short on forehead and ears. Typical characteristics are the not too soft beard on the muzzle and the bushy eyebrows which slightly shade the eyes.

毛质:

被毛应为刚毛、坚硬、浓密。毛发由浓密的底毛和不是很短的外毛组成。外毛粗糙,足够长,紧贴身体。可检查其质地,底毛既不短而硬也不卷曲;四肢的毛稍软。前额和耳朵的被毛短。典型特征:口吻部的胡须不过软,浓密的眉毛稍微遮住眼睛。

Colour:

Pure black with black undercoat.

Pepper and Salt.

Black/Silver.

Pure white with white undercoat.

When breeding Pepper and Salt, the aim is a medium shading with evenly distributed, well pigmented, pepper coloring and grey undercoat. The shades from dark iron grey to silver grey are all permitted. In all color variations there must be a dark mask, which should adapt harmoniously to the respective color. Distinct light markings on head, chest and limbs are undesirable.

For the Black/Silver color, the aim in breeding is a black top coat with black undercoat, white markings over the eyes, on the cheeks, at the beard, at the throat, in two divided triangles at the front of the chest, on the front pasterns, on the feet, on the inside of the hind legs and around the anus. The forehead, the neck and the outer sides of the ears should be black like the top coat.

毛色:

纯黑带黑色底毛

椒盐色

黑/银色

纯白带白色底毛

繁殖椒盐色的迷你雪纳瑞时,理想的颜色是:被毛中等灰色均匀的遍布全身,色素沉淀好。胡椒着色,底毛为灰色。允许的颜色:从深铁灰色到银灰色等不同深浅的"胡椒色"。不管为何种椒盐色,面部都应该为深色,以强调表情,并与身体颜色协调。头部、胸部、四肢有明显的浅色斑纹属于失格。

繁殖黑/银色的迷你雪纳瑞时,理想的颜色是:顶层毛为黑色,底毛黑色,眼睛上部、面颊、胡须、喉部,前胸的两个单独的三角形、前系部、足部、后腿内侧和肛门周围有白斑。前额,颈部和耳朵外侧应该是和顶层毛一样的黑色。

SIZE:尺寸

Height at withers

Dogs and bitches between 30 and 35 cm.

肩高:公犬和母犬: 30~35 厘米

Weight:

Dogs and bitches approximately 4 to 8 kg.

体重:公犬和母犬大约: 4~8 千克

FAULTS:缺陷

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

Heavy or round skull.

Wrinkles on forehead.

Short, pointed or narrow muzzle.

Pincer bite.

Strongly protruding cheeks or cheekbones.

Light, too large or round eyes.

Low set, too long or unevenly carried ears.

Throatiness.

Dewlap, narrow crest or neck.

Too long, tucked up or soft back.

Roach back.

Croup falling away.

Tail set inclined towards head.

Long feet.

Pacing movement.

Too short, too long, soft, wavy, shaggy, silky coat.

Brown undercoat.

A black trace on the back or a black saddle.

In Black/Silver not clearly separated triangles on the chest.

Over- or undersize up to 1 cm.

任何与上述各点相背离的均视为缺陷,其缺陷的严重性严格地与其缺陷的程度和对犬只健康和福利带来的影响成正比。

头骨过重或圆。

前额有褶皱。

口吻短,尖或狭窄。

钳状咬合

十分突出的面颊或面颊骨

眼睛颜色浅,过大或圆

耳朵位置低,过长或不对称。

有赘肉。

颈部有赘肉,颈脊狭窄

背部过长,凸起或过软。

背成拱状。

臀部倾斜。

尾根朝头部倾斜。

长足。

踱步。

被毛过短,过长,过软,波状,杂乱,丝滑。

褐色底毛。

背上有黑色痕迹或后半背为黑色。

黑/银色犬,胸部两个单独的三角不明显。

大小上下偏差超过1 厘米。

SERIOUS FAULTS:严重缺陷

Clumsy or light build. Too low or too high on leg.

Inverse sexual type (e.g. doggy bitch).

Elbows turning out.

Straight or open hocked hind legs.

Lower thigh too long.

Hocks turning inwards.

Rear pastern too short.

White or spotted coat in black or pepper and salt dogs.

Patchy coat in the colors black/silver and white.

Over- or undersize by more than 1 cm but less than 2 cm.

体形笨重或过轻。腿太短或太长。

相反的性别特征(如:母犬公相)。

肘外翻。

后肢跖部直或过开。

小腿过长。

跖部内弯

后系部过短

黑色或椒盐色犬的被毛为白色或有斑点。

黑银色和白色犬的被毛分布不均。

大小上下偏差超过1厘米但不到2厘米。

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS:失格缺陷

Aggressive or overly shy.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

Malformation of any kind.

Lack of breed type.

Faulty mouth, such as over- or undershot or wry mouth.

Severe faults in individual parts, such as faults in construction, coat and colour.

Over- or undersize by more than 2 cm.

有攻击性或过于羞怯。

任何身体和行为有明显异常的犬都为失格。

任何形式的畸形。

缺少犬种特征。

嘴部不合乎要求,如上颌突出,下颌突出或歪斜。

个别部分有严重缺陷,例如身体结构,被毛,毛色有严重缺陷。

Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typicalconformation, should be used for breeding.

只有身体机能以及临床表现健康的,具备典型犬种结构的犬只,才可用于繁殖。

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